Introduction
Hale County vs. Alabama
Hale County:
2019 PCI = $38,207
2019 Percent of State = 86.6%
Alabama:
2019 PCI = $44,145
Per Capita Income (PCI) is one of the most widely used indicators for gauging the economic performance and changing fortunes of local economies. It is used as a yardstick to assess the economic well being of a region's residents and the quality of consumer markets. It serves as a barometer for calibrating the economic performance of a region over time and to judge differences in relative economic prosperity between regions. Shifting trends in local per capita income growth have important social and political ramifications and significant implications in formulating local economic development strategies and initiatives.
Data Definition:
This measure of income is calculated as the total personal income of the residents of an area divided by the population of the area. Per capita personal income is often used as an indicator of consumers' purchasing power and of the economic well-being of the residents of an area.
Personal income is measured as a flow throughout the year, while the measurement of population is at one point in mid-year. Therefore, per capita income is distorted if a significant change in population occurs during the year.
For smaller counties in particular, per capita income in any given year may be exceptionally high or low for the short run because of unusual local conditions, such as a bumper crop, a catastrophe, or a major construction project as the building of a dam or nuclear power plant.
Farm incomes are notorious for being especially volatile year-to-year, owing to changing weather, commodity market conditions, and alterations in government programs. Therefore, the per capita income of farm-dependent counties may exhibit sharp fluctuations over time.
The presence of large institutional populations--such as residents attending a local college or the residents of a local prison or state mental institution--can significantly lower the per capita income estimates of an area. Such results may not reflect the relative economic well being of the non-institutional population and may mislead if care is not given to their interpretation.
Page 2 of 13
Hale County Per Capita Personal Income, 1970-2019
Current vs. Constant Dollars
Hale County Per Capita Personal Income, 1970-2019
Current vs. Constant Dollars
Figure 1.
Figure 1 depicts Hale County's annual per capita personal income over 1970-2019 in current and constant (2012) dollars. Constant dollar measurements remove the effects of inflation. They allow for comparison of changes in the real purchasing power of Hale County over time.
When measured in current dollars, Hale County's per capita personal income increased 1,865.8%, from $1,944 in 1970 to $38,207 in 2019. When measured in constant 2012 dollars to adjust for inflation, it advanced 274.9%, from $9,277 in 1970 to $34,781 in 2019.
Page 3 of 13
Real Per Capita Personal Income, 1969-2019
Real Per Capita Personal Income, 1969-2019
Figure 2.
Figure 2 traces Hale County's and Alabama's annual real per capita personal income for the period 1969-2019 to illustrate real per capita personal income patterns over time. During this 51-year period, Hale County's real per capita personal income rose from $7,441 in 1969 to $34,781 in 2019, for a net gain of $27,340, or 367.4%. In comparison, Alabama's real per capita personal income increased from $14,143 in 1969 to $40,186 in 2019, for a net advance of $26,043, or 184.1%.
Page 4 of 13
Real Per Capita Personal Income Indices (1969=100): 1969-2019
Real Per Capita Personal Income Indices (1969=100): 1969-2019
Figure 3.
Figure 3 portrays Hale County's real per capita personal income growth in a broader context by offering direct comparisons across time with Alabama, the United States. The growth indices shown here express each region's real per capita personal income in 1969 as a base figure of 100, and the real per capita personal incomes in later years as a percentage of the 1969 base figure. This method allows for more direct comparison of differences in real per capita personal income growth between regions that may differ vastly in size.
Hale County's overall real per capita personal income growth was 367.4% over 1969-2019 outpaced Alabama's increase of 184.1%, and outpaced the United States' increase of 161.9%.
Page 5 of 13
Per Capita Personal Income as a Percent of the U.S. Average: 1969-2019
Per Capita Personal Income as a Percent of the U.S. Average: 1969-2019
Figure 4.
Figure 4 depicts the trends for per capita personal income relative to the national average by tracing Hale County and Alabama per capita personal income as a percent of the national average over 1969-2019.
In 1969, Hale County's per capita personal income amounted to 37.9% of the national average; in 2019, it approximated 67.6%. Similarly, in 1969, Alabama's per capita personal income totaled 72.0% of the national average; in 2019, it consisted of 78.1%.
Page 6 of 13
Hale County Real Per Capita Personal Income:
Annual Percent Change, 1970-2019
Hale County Real Per Capita Personal Income:
Annual Percent Change, 1970-2019
Figure 5.
Figure 5 shows the short-run pattern of Hale County's real per capita personal income growth by tracking the year-to-year percent change over 1970-2019. The average annual percent change for the entire 50-year period is also illustrated on this chart to provide a benchmark for gauging periods of relative high--and relative low--growth against the backdrop of the long-term average.
On average, Hale County's real per capita personal income grew at an annual rate of 3.23% over 1970-2019. The county recorded its highest growth in 1970 (24.68%) and posted its lowest growth in 1974 (-6.11%). In 2019, Hale County's real per capita personal income grew by 2.90%
Page 7 of 13
Hale County Real Per Capita Personal Income:
Annual Percent Change and Decade Averages Over 1970-2019
Hale County Real Per Capita Personal Income:
Annual Percent Change and Decade Averages Over 1970-2019
Figure 6.
Over the past five decades some counties have experienced extreme swings in growth, and often such swings have tended to coincide with the decades themselves. Figure 6 again shows the annual percent change in Hale County's real per capita personal income since 1970, but this time they are displayed with average growth rates for the decade of the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, 2000s, and 2010-2019.
During the 1970s, Hale County's annual real per capita personal income growth rate averaged 5.18%. It averaged 3.66% during the 1980s, 2.62% during the 1990s, 3.32% in the 2000s, and 1.38% thus far this decade (2010 to 2019).
Page 8 of 13
Real Per Capita Personal Income Growth:
Average Annual Percent Change by Decade
Real Per Capita Personal Income Growth:
Average Annual Percent Change by Decade
Figure 7.
Figure 7 compares the decade average growth rates for Hale County noted in the previous graph with the corresponding decade averages for Alabama and the nation. As the chart reveals, Hale County's average annual real per capita personal income growth outpaced Alabama's average in the 1970s (5.18% vs. 3.30%), exceeded Alabama's average throughout the 1980s (3.66% vs. 2.39%), topped Alabama's average in the 1990s (2.62% vs. 2.17%), topped Alabama's average in the 2000s (3.32% vs. 1.27%), and fell below Alabama's average over the 10 year period of the last decade, 2010-2019 (1.38% vs. 1.50%).
Finally, relative to nationwide real per capita personal income growth trends, Hale County led the nation during the 1970s (5.18% vs. 2.37%), recorded above the nation over the 1980s (3.66% vs. 2.20%), outgained the nation over the 1990s (2.62% vs. 2.03%), outperformed the nation during the 2000s (3.32% vs. 1.09%), and recorded underneath the nation over 2010-2019 (1.38% vs. 2.11%).
   
 
Real* Per Capita Personal Income Growth:
Average Annual Percent Change
 
 
 
3.23
5.18
3.66
2.62
3.32
1.38
2.90
 
2.13
3.30
2.39
2.17
1.27
1.50
1.84
 
1.96
2.37
2.20
2.03
1.09
2.11
1.93
 
   
Page 9 of 13

Interactive TableTip: To augment your analysis click on the column headers in the following table to rank and/or sort the data.

   
 
Hale County:
Per Capita Personal Income, 1969-2019
 
1969
 
1,489
0.200
7,441
100.0
N
52.61
37.89
1970
 
1,944
0.210
9,277
124.7
24.68
63.09
46.30
1971
 
2,227
0.218
10,194
137.0
9.89
66.56
49.80
1972
 
2,369
0.226
10,489
141.0
2.89
64.52
48.78
1973
 
2,654
0.238
11,149
149.8
6.29
64.91
49.48
1974
 
2,751
0.263
10,468
140.7
-6.11
61.45
47.14
1975
 
3,008
0.285
10,567
142.0
0.94
61.17
47.57
1976
 
3,425
0.300
11,404
153.3
7.93
62.98
49.82
1977
 
3,619
0.320
11,316
152.1
-0.78
61.14
48.16
1978
 
4,185
0.342
12,233
164.4
8.11
63.32
50.08
1979
 
4,462
0.373
11,979
161.0
-2.07
61.34
48.34
1980
 
4,819
0.413
11,680
157.0
-2.50
60.56
47.34
1981
 
5,386
0.450
11,980
161.0
2.57
61.24
47.66
1982
 
5,865
0.475
12,358
166.1
3.15
63.25
48.87
1983
 
6,352
0.495
12,840
172.6
3.90
64.13
50.03
1984
 
7,186
0.513
13,996
188.1
9.01
66.24
51.67
1985
 
8,227
0.531
15,483
208.1
10.62
70.89
55.76
1986
 
8,829
0.543
16,263
218.6
5.04
72.23
57.00
1987
 
9,002
0.560
16,085
216.2
-1.10
69.98
55.26
1988
 
9,758
0.582
16,781
225.5
4.33
70.68
55.91
1989
 
10,347
0.607
17,049
229.1
1.59
69.04
55.40
1990
 
11,216
0.634
17,704
237.9
3.84
70.71
57.16
1991
 
11,841
0.655
18,085
243.1
2.16
71.45
59.12
1992
 
12,653
0.672
18,825
253.0
4.09
71.96
60.00
1993
 
13,386
0.689
19,430
261.1
3.21
73.84
61.59
1994
 
13,923
0.703
19,796
266.1
1.89
73.36
61.67
1995
 
14,655
0.718
20,408
274.3
3.09
73.67
62.08
1996
 
14,771
0.733
20,138
270.7
-1.32
71.60
59.63
1997
 
15,016
0.746
20,123
270.4
-0.08
69.79
57.77
1998
 
15,641
0.752
20,795
279.5
3.34
68.93
56.76
1999
 
16,828
0.763
22,044
296.3
6.00
72.06
58.68
2000
 
16,496
0.782
21,086
283.4
-4.35
67.78
53.81
2001
 
17,557
0.797
22,018
295.9
4.42
69.94
55.58
2002
 
18,895
0.808
23,388
314.3
6.22
73.49
59.36
2003
 
20,783
0.824
25,234
339.1
7.90
77.86
63.59
2004
 
22,357
0.844
26,486
356.0
4.96
78.68
65.27
2005
 
23,554
0.868
27,132
364.6
2.44
78.95
65.70
2006
 
25,597
0.892
28,705
385.8
5.80
81.62
67.16
2007
 
26,384
0.914
28,855
387.8
0.52
80.94
66.22
2008
 
28,084
0.942
29,819
400.8
3.34
84.20
68.66
2009
 
28,601
0.941
30,397
408.5
1.94
87.71
72.81
2010
 
28,974
0.957
30,274
406.9
-0.40
85.84
71.46
2011
 
30,396
0.981
30,975
416.3
2.32
86.86
71.12
2012
 
31,013
1.000
31,013
416.8
0.12
86.42
69.53
2013
 
32,352
1.013
31,922
429.0
2.93
89.59
72.12
2014
 
32,293
1.028
31,405
422.1
-1.62
86.65
68.61
2015
 
34,305
1.030
33,292
447.4
6.01
88.21
69.98
2016
 
35,130
1.041
33,739
453.4
1.34
88.86
70.24
2017
 
35,842
1.060
33,818
454.5
0.23
87.36
68.77
2018
 
36,586
1.082
33,801
454.3
-0.05
85.66
67.00
2019
 
38,207
1.099
34,781
467.4
2.90
86.55
67.64
Source: Calculations by the Alabama Regional Economic Analysis Project (AL-REAP)
with data provided by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis
November 2020
REAP_PI_CA1400_700_PSN
 
   
Page 10 of 13

Interactive TableTip: To augment your analysis click on the column headers in the following table to rank and/or sort the data.

   
 
Alabama:
Per Capita Personal Income, 1969-2019
 
1969
 
2,831
0.200
14,143
100.0
N
72.02
1970
 
3,081
0.210
14,705
104.0
3.97
73.39
1971
 
3,345
0.218
15,316
108.3
4.15
74.82
1972
 
3,672
0.226
16,258
115.0
6.15
75.60
1973
 
4,088
0.238
17,176
121.4
5.65
76.23
1974
 
4,477
0.263
17,035
120.4
-0.82
76.72
1975
 
4,918
0.285
17,274
122.1
1.40
77.77
1976
 
5,438
0.300
18,108
128.0
4.83
79.10
1977
 
5,920
0.320
18,509
130.9
2.21
78.77
1978
 
6,609
0.342
19,319
136.6
4.37
79.09
1979
 
7,275
0.373
19,531
138.1
1.10
78.80
1980
 
7,957
0.413
19,285
136.4
-1.26
78.17
1981
 
8,796
0.450
19,564
138.3
1.44
77.84
1982
 
9,272
0.475
19,539
138.2
-0.13
77.27
1983
 
9,906
0.495
20,022
141.6
2.48
78.01
1984
 
10,848
0.513
21,129
149.4
5.53
78.01
1985
 
11,604
0.531
21,840
154.4
3.37
78.65
1986
 
12,223
0.543
22,515
159.2
3.09
78.91
1987
 
12,864
0.560
22,986
162.5
2.09
78.97
1988
 
13,807
0.582
23,744
167.9
3.30
79.10
1989
 
14,986
0.607
24,692
174.6
3.99
80.24
1990
 
15,861
0.634
25,036
177.0
1.39
80.84
1991
 
16,572
0.655
25,311
179.0
1.10
82.73
1992
 
17,583
0.672
26,158
185.0
3.35
83.37
1993
 
18,129
0.689
26,315
186.1
0.60
83.42
1994
 
18,977
0.703
26,983
190.8
2.54
84.06
1995
 
19,892
0.718
27,701
195.9
2.66
84.26
1996
 
20,630
0.733
28,127
198.9
1.54
83.28
1997
 
21,516
0.746
28,833
203.9
2.51
82.78
1998
 
22,692
0.752
30,170
213.3
4.64
82.35
1999
 
23,352
0.763
30,590
216.3
1.39
81.44
2000
 
24,338
0.782
31,108
220.0
1.69
79.39
2001
 
25,104
0.797
31,483
222.6
1.20
79.47
2002
 
25,712
0.808
31,826
225.0
1.09
80.77
2003
 
26,693
0.824
32,411
229.2
1.84
81.68
2004
 
28,415
0.844
33,662
238.0
3.86
82.96
2005
 
29,832
0.868
34,364
243.0
2.08
83.22
2006
 
31,362
0.892
35,170
248.7
2.34
82.28
2007
 
32,598
0.914
35,651
252.1
1.37
81.82
2008
 
33,353
0.942
35,414
250.4
-0.66
81.54
2009
 
32,608
0.941
34,654
245.0
-2.15
83.00
2010
 
33,752
0.957
35,266
249.4
1.77
83.24
2011
 
34,995
0.981
35,661
252.1
1.12
81.88
2012
 
35,884
1.000
35,884
253.7
0.63
80.45
2013
 
36,110
1.013
35,631
251.9
-0.71
80.50
2014
 
37,271
1.028
36,245
256.3
1.72
79.18
2015
 
38,891
1.030
37,742
266.9
4.13
79.34
2016
 
39,536
1.041
37,971
268.5
0.61
79.05
2017
 
41,030
1.060
38,713
273.7
1.96
78.73
2018
 
42,710
1.082
39,459
279.0
1.93
78.21
2019
 
44,145
1.099
40,186
284.1
1.84
78.15
Source: Calculations by the Alabama Regional Economic Analysis Project (AL-REAP)
with data provided by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis
November 2020
REAP_PI_CA1400_700_PSN
 
   
Page 11 of 13

Interactive TableTip: To augment your analysis click on the column headers in the following table to rank and/or sort the data.

   
 
United States:
Per Capita Personal Income, 1969-2019
 
1969
 
3,931
0.200
19,638
100.0
N
1970
 
4,198
0.210
20,037
102.0
2.03
1971
 
4,471
0.218
20,469
104.2
2.16
1972
 
4,857
0.226
21,504
109.5
5.05
1973
 
5,363
0.238
22,532
114.7
4.78
1974
 
5,836
0.263
22,205
113.1
-1.45
1975
 
6,324
0.285
22,212
113.1
0.03
1976
 
6,875
0.300
22,893
116.6
3.06
1977
 
7,516
0.320
23,496
119.6
2.64
1978
 
8,356
0.342
24,425
124.4
3.95
1979
 
9,232
0.373
24,784
126.2
1.47
1980
 
10,180
0.413
24,672
125.6
-0.45
1981
 
11,300
0.450
25,134
128.0
1.87
1982
 
11,999
0.475
25,285
128.8
0.60
1983
 
12,698
0.495
25,666
130.7
1.51
1984
 
13,906
0.513
27,085
137.9
5.53
1985
 
14,755
0.531
27,769
141.4
2.52
1986
 
15,490
0.543
28,532
145.3
2.75
1987
 
16,289
0.560
29,106
148.2
2.01
1988
 
17,455
0.582
30,017
152.8
3.13
1989
 
18,676
0.607
30,773
156.7
2.52
1990
 
19,621
0.634
30,970
157.7
0.64
1991
 
20,030
0.655
30,593
155.8
-1.22
1992
 
21,090
0.672
31,376
159.8
2.56
1993
 
21,733
0.689
31,546
160.6
0.54
1994
 
22,575
0.703
32,099
163.4
1.75
1995
 
23,607
0.718
32,874
167.4
2.42
1996
 
24,771
0.733
33,773
172.0
2.73
1997
 
25,993
0.746
34,833
177.4
3.14
1998
 
27,557
0.752
36,637
186.6
5.18
1999
 
28,675
0.763
37,564
191.3
2.53
2000
 
30,657
0.782
39,186
199.5
4.32
2001
 
31,589
0.797
39,616
201.7
1.10
2002
 
31,832
0.808
39,401
200.6
-0.54
2003
 
32,681
0.824
39,681
202.1
0.71
2004
 
34,251
0.844
40,576
206.6
2.26
2005
 
35,849
0.868
41,295
210.3
1.77
2006
 
38,114
0.892
42,742
217.6
3.50
2007
 
39,844
0.914
43,575
221.9
1.95
2008
 
40,904
0.942
43,431
221.2
-0.33
2009
 
39,284
0.941
41,750
212.6
-3.87
2010
 
40,547
0.957
42,366
215.7
1.48
2011
 
42,739
0.981
43,553
221.8
2.80
2012
 
44,605
1.000
44,605
227.1
2.42
2013
 
44,860
1.013
44,264
225.4
-0.76
2014
 
47,071
1.028
45,775
233.1
3.41
2015
 
49,019
1.030
47,571
242.2
3.92
2016
 
50,015
1.041
48,035
244.6
0.98
2017
 
52,118
1.060
49,175
250.4
2.37
2018
 
54,606
1.082
50,450
256.9
2.59
2019
 
56,490
1.099
51,424
261.9
1.93
Source: Calculations by the Alabama Regional Economic Analysis Project (AL-REAP)
with data provided by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis
November 2020
REAP_PI_CA1400_700_PN
 
   
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